9.1 Synonyms are listed alphabetically in a separate paragraph (but see paragraph 9.5 for basionyms of recognized taxa). If more than one synonym is included, they will be separated by semicolons.
9.2 All Chinese taxa at the generic, specific, and infraspecific levels recognized in major floras of areas surrounding China (see section 25) will be included in synonymy when they are not recognized in the Flora of China, and the basionyms of all taxa cited in synonymy must be included. However, names included in these floras due to misidentification will not be treated as synonyms, although they should be mentioned in the discussion if deemed useful (see section 22). Pro parte citations should only be given when the protologue cites types now thought to belong to more than one currently recognized taxon and when the exact usage of the names has not been clarified by lectotypification. If possible contributors should lectotypify such names in a precursory paper rather than giving pro parte citations in the Flora (see section 8).
9.3 At the generic level synonyms widely used in the literature will also be included. Generic synonyms will include only the author(s). The type species of genera will not be indicated unless doing so is necessary to clarify the nomenclature. The citation will then be given in the discussion (see section 22).
9.4 At the specific and infraspecific levels only the main synonyms will be included beyond those necessitated by section 9.2. Synonyms of taxa occurring outside of China, and those for which the status is uncertain, should not be included in synonymy.
9.5. At the specific and infraspecific levels the complete bibliographic citation of synonyms is to be given only for basionyms of recognized taxa, and the author(s) alone will be given for other synonyms. Basionyms of recognized taxa will be listed as the first synonym rather than in alphabetical order.